06 Sep 17 06 Sep 17


Meningococcal meningitis is a highly contagious bacterial form of meningitis — a serious inflammation of the meninges, the thin lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

MSF treated 3,430 patients for meningitis and vaccinated 496,000 people against the disease in 2012.

In the last 20 years, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), close to one million suspected cases of meningitis have been reported and 100,000 people have died.

The vast majority of meningitis cases and deaths occur in Africa. During the dry season (December to June), epidemics regularly hit countries in the African ‘meningitis belt’, a region that stretches across the continent from Senegal to Ethiopia.

Even when the disease is diagnosed early and adequate treatment is started, five to 10 per cent of patients typically die within 24 to 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. Left untreated, up to 50 per cent of cases may result in death.

What causes meningitis?

Meningococcal meningitis is highly contagious. People infected with the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis often carry the disease without showing symptoms and spread it through coughing and sneezing. Overcrowding and cramped living conditions increase the risk of spreading the disease.

Symptoms of meningitis

Signs and symptoms include sudden and intense headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, photophobia (a low tolerance to light) and stiffness of the neck. Although anyone of any age can become infected with meningitis, babies and children are particularly susceptible.

Diagnosing meningitis

Diagnosing meningitis in the settings in which we work is often difficult — and needs to be done quickly. A painful lumbar puncture is needed for the examination of spinal fluid, and sometimes the bacteria can be seen under a microscope. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing bacteria from spinal fluid or blood. Further tests determine how effective certain antibiotics will be for the patient.

Treating meningitis

A range of antibiotics can treat the infection, including penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. In areas with limited health infrastructure and resources, oily chloramphenicol or ceftriaxone are the drugs of choice because a single dose has been shown to be effective against meningococcal meningitis.

However, timely mass vaccinations are the most effective means of limiting the spread of epidemics. The WHO has estimated that mass immunizations have managed to prevent up to 70 per cent of expected cases in individual meningitis outbreaks in Africa.

MSF treated 3,430 patients for meningitis and vaccinated 496,000 people against the disease in 2012.